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Ni-Cd Battery Characteristics

Cell Construction
1     Cell cap (+)
2     Gasket
3     Current Collector
4     Cell Can (-)
5     Bottom Insulator Flake                 
6     Safety Vent
7     Top Insulator Flake
8     Separator
9     Anode- Nickel Electrode
10  Cathode- Cadmium Electrode
Major Features
Cost effective, Reliable safety vent system, Long service life,
Wide temperature range, Excellent permanent charge endurance 
Major Applications
Lighting:                        Emergency lighting, Solar light, Flashlight
Toys:                              R/C cars, Racing cars, R/C ships
Communications:       Cordless telephone, Two-way radios
Electric Tools:              Electric Screwdrivers, Auto-mower, Portable vacuum cleaners
Audiovisual Devices:  Camera, MP3/MP4, Remote control, Portable DVD
Other Applications:      Shavers, Access controller, and so on

General Characteristics of Nickel Cadmium Batteries

Charge characteristics
During charging, the cell voltage of NiCd batteries increases as charging proceeds. It then decreases slightly in the final stage due to heat generation within the cell, eventually reaching an equilibrium. The cell voltage varies widely according to the ambient temperature.
Standard charge    0.1C for 16 hours
Quick charge      0.3C for 4.5 hours
Fast charge        1C for 1.3 hours with –△V or dT/dt controlled

Discharge characteristics

The operating voltage of NiCd batteries varies slightly depending on the discharge current. It is maintained at approximately 1.2V for above 80% of the discharge period.
Standard series cells can withstand a high rate discharge up to 3C.

Cycle characteristics

Under normal usage conditions, NiCd batteries can withstand over 500 charge/discharge cycles according to IEC criterion. Even under 1C charge/discharge conditions in the accelerating cycle procedure, it can also be expected to provide more than 400 charge/discharge cycles.  

Temperature characteristics

NiCd batteries can be used over a vide temperature range. As cell characteristics vary slightly depending on the temperature, in order to obtain optimum performance, the cell should be handled within the specified temperature.
Standard charge      0~45℃
Fast charge         10~40℃
Discharge          -20~60℃

Storage characteristics

With NiCd batteries, self-discharge accelerates as the temperature increase. However the cell capacity decreased through discharging during storage can be restored to its original level by recharging. But in order to minimize the deterioration in battery performance, the cells should be stored at -20~35℃(for long periods).
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